When you find something you may want to include in your speech, be sure to write down or print off all the information you’ll need for your documentation—your works cited list—which you will turn in. Documentation is the annoying but necessary process of listing the research sources you used. There will be more on this a little later.

You will use a shortened form of the documentation in your actual speech. This is called “oral footnoting.” You give enough information about your sources so the audience understands you are inserting an outside source into your speech. Your audience will take your presentation more seriously if you cite research by authorities that back up your statements. The next page gives you a couple of examples of how to do oral footnotes.

Sometimes you want to use the exact words from one of the research sources, but it’s OK to change the wording so it fits into your speech better. This is called “paraphrasing.” When you paraphrase, you still have to say where the information came from.