Turabian Documentation

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You must cite the words or ideas of others that you use in your research paper in order to (1) give credit to the original source, (2) let your readers judge the accuracy and reliability of your facts, and (3) allow readers to follow your research. Use quotation marks if you use the exact words of the original source. You do not need quotation marks if you paraphrase (restate the idea in your own words), but you still need to cite the source.

Kate Turabian, the dissertation secretary at the University of Chicago for over 30 years, created a guide for students and researchers, based on The Chicago Manual of Style. The Turabian manual describes two forms of citation:

  • the Notes-Bibliography Style (15.3.1, p.142) — uses numbered notes to cite
  • the Author-Date Style (15.3.2, p.143) — uses parenthetical, in-text citations

This guide will cover the Notes-Bibliography Style. For Notes-Bibliography Style citations, place a superscript number at the ends of sentences containing borrowed information (15.3.1)):

According to Fruchtman, Thomas Paine was hailed as a champion of individual liberties in England after the publication of Paine's pamphlet, Common Sense.1

Cite the source of the information in a corresponding numbered note that provides information about that source and relevant page numbers. Use a new number each time you include a new quote or paraphrase, even if you use only one or two sources. Notes are arranged in numerical order, either at the bottom of the page as footnotes or in a list at the end of your paper as endnotes. Indent the first line of the note five spaces, or the same number of spaces that you use to indent paragraphs. Notes should be single-spaced with one blank line between notes.

Use the Latin abbreviation ibid. (for ibidem, "in the same place") to cite a work already cited in the immediately preceding note. Ibid. should be capitalized but not italicized and must end with a period. If a note is for the same work, different page, place a comma after ibid. followed by the page number (16.4.2, p.166-167).

To format your bibliography, leave two spaces between the word "Bibliography" and the first entry. Single-space the sources in your bibliography, leaving a blank line between each entry. The first line of each entry should be aligned to the left margin; if an entry is two lines or longer, each subsequent line should be indented, using a "hanging indent" like this:

Lastname, Firstname. The Austin Community College Library Guide to Turabian Citations: How to Format with Style. Austin: ACC Guides, 2018.

To format hanging indents:
In Microsoft Word, highlight the text and click the arrow next to "Paragraph" in the Word toolbar to open the Paragraph menu. Under "indentation" go to the "Special" drop box, select "Hanging," then click OK.
In Google Docs, highlight all but the first line in your citation and use the increase indent on the Google Docs toolbar. Your citation will now have a hanging indent. You can also use the ruler (you may have to make it visible through the View menu) and drag the left margin control over to about five spaces or one-quarter inch.

Examples in this guide show the Footnote/Endnote citation first, then the

Bibliography example for each citation. References to sections and page numbers in A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 9th ed. are included for more details.

Note and Bibliography Examples

(Note examples appear first and are numbered.)

Type of SourceExample
Books (Section 17.1 pp.166-181)
One author
Footnote or Endnote 1. David L. Holmes, The Faiths of the Founding Fathers (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 64.
Footnote or Endnote
Preceding work, same page (16.4.2, p. 161)
2. Ibid.
Footnote or Endnote
Preceding work, different page
3. Ibid., 82.
Shortened form for note of work already cited, preceded by a different work (16.4.1, p. 164) 4. Holmes, The Faiths of the Founding Fathers, 80.
Bibliography Holmes, David L. The Faiths of the Founding Fathers. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Book with more than one author or editor
Footnote or Endnote 5. Dorothy Denneen Volo and James M. Volo, Daily Life during the American Revolution (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003), 42.
Footnote or Endnote, Shortened note form, following a note for a different work. 6. Volo and Volo, Daily Life during the American Revolution, 42.
Bibliography Volo, Dorothy Denneen, and James M. Volo. Daily Life during the American Revolution. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2003.
Book with four or more authors
Footnote or Endnote
Use et al. after the first author's name
7. Jacquelyn Dowd Hall et al., Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), 23-25.
Bibliography
List all authors' names
Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd, James Leloudis, Robert Korstad, Mary Murphy, Lu Ann Jones, and Christopher B. Daly. Like a Family: The Making of a Southern Cotton Mill World. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000.
Book with author(s) plus editor (ed.) or translator (trans.) (17.1.1.1, p. 172)
Footnote or Endnote 8. Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America: and Two Essays on America, trans. Gerald E. Bevan (London: Penguin, 2003), 600.
Bibliography Tocqueville, Alexis de. Democracy in America: and Two Essays on America. Translated by Gerald E. Bevan. London: Penguin, 2003.
Book with editor, translator, or compiler in place of author(17.1.1.2, p. 172-173)
Footnote or Endnote
Use the abbreviations ed. (or eds.), trans., or comp.
9. Jack Goldstone, ed., Who's Who in Political Revolutions (Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1999), 119-120.
Bibliography Goldstone, Jack, ed. Who's Who in Political Revolutions. Washington D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, 1999.
Chapter or other parts of a book (17.1.8, p. 183-184)
Footnote or Endnote 10. Eric Foner, "Tom Paine's Republic: Radical Ideology and Social Change," in The American Revolution: Explorations in the History of American Radicalism, ed. Alfred F. Young (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1976), 189-90.
Bibliography Foner, Eric. "Tom Paine's Republic: Radical Ideology and Social Change." In The American Revolution: Explorations in the History of American Radicalism, edited by Alfred F. Young, 189-228. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 1976.
Two or more books by the same author
Footnote or Endnote 11. Eric Foner, Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 3rd ed. (New York: W.W. Norton, 2012),1:100-101.

12. Eric Foner, The Story of American Freedom (New York: W.W. Norton, 1998), 15-16.
Bibliography
Arrange the entries alphabetically by title
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty!: An American History. 3rd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 2012.
After the first entry, replace the author's name with six hyphens (16.2.2, pp. 156-157) ------. The Story of American Freedom. New York: W.W. Norton, 1998.
Preface, foreword, introduction, or similar part of a book (17.1.8, p.183)
Footnote or Endnote 13. Joyce Oldham Appleby, Introduction to Common Sense and Other Writings, by Thomas Paine (New York: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2005), xxxvii.
Bibliography Appleby, Joyce Oldham. Introduction to Common Sense and Other Writings, by Thomas Paine. New York: Barnes & Noble Classics, 2005.
Electronic Books (Section 17.1.10, p. 186)
  • If you read the book online, include a URL.
  • If you used a book from a library ebook collection, give the name of the database instead of a URL.
  • If you download a book in a format that requires a specific app or device, include that information (e.g., EPUB, Adobe Digital Editions PDF, Kindle).
  • For ebooks without page numbers, you can cite a chapter or section number (see 17.1.7.1 and 17.1.8).
  • Access dates are not needed for formally published electronic sources (14.12, CMOS, 17th edition)
Footnote or Endnote 14. Thomas Paine, Rights of Man: Being an Answer to Mr. Burke's Attack on the French Revolution, Part 1, ed. Moncure Daniel Conway (London: G.P. Putnam, 1894), 16-17, http://books.google.com/books?id=GrYBAAAAYAAJ.
Bibliography Paine, Thomas. Rights of Man: Being an Answer to Mr. Burke's Attack on the French Revolution, Part 1. Edited by Moncure Daniel Conway. London: G.P. Putnam, 1894. http://books.google.com/books?id=GrYBAAAAYAAJ.
Footnote or Endnote 15. Jack Fruchtman, Thomas Paine: Apostle of Freedom (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996), 450-54, eBooks on EBSCOhost.
Bibliography Fruchtman, Jack. Thomas Paine: Apostle of Freedom. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996. eBooks on EBSCOhost.
Footnote or Endnote 16. Thomas Paine, Common Sense (Philadelphia: W. & T. Bradford, February 14, 1776; Project Gutenberg, 2008), chap. 2, http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/147.
Bibliography Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Philadelphia: W. & T. Bradford, February 14, 1776; Project Gutenberg, 2008. http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/147.
Reference Works – Encyclopedias, Dictionaries, Handbooks, Almanacs, Atlases, etc. (Section 17.9, p. 204)
"Well-known reference works, such as major dictionaries and encyclopedias, should usually be cited only in notes. You do not need not include them in your bibliography, although you may choose to include a specific work that is critical to your argument or frequently cited. Within the note, you may omit the facts of publication, but you must specify the edition (if not the first, or unless no edition is specified). Items consulted online will require a URL (see 15.4.1.3); for undated items, include an access date (see 15.4.1.5). For a work arranged by key terms such as a dictionary or encyclopedia, cite the item (not the volume or page number) preceded by s.v. (for sub verbo, meaning "under the word"; pl. s.vv.)" (p. 204).
Edition and volume numbers in reference works: If volumes are not individually titled (17.1.4.1, p. 178), list the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers in the Note Form. For reference works in library subscription databases (15.4.1.4, p. 145), list page and volume numbers if available. If the database provides a URL for the source, use the one provided instead of the URL in your browser address bar. A URL based on a DOI is best. If there is no short or direct URL, substitute the name of the database for the URL.
Footnote or Endnote
Use s.v. "sub verbo" for "under the word" for general encyclopedia entries
17. Encyclopaedia Britannica, s.v. "Paine, Thomas (1737-1809)," http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/438489/Thomas-Paine.
Bibliography No bibliography entry is needed for well-known reference works
Footnote or Endnote 18. Mark Grossman, "Paine, Thomas (1737-1809)," in Encyclopedia of the Continental Congresses, (Amenia, NY: Grey House Publishing, 2015), 2:1104-1110, Gale Virtual Reference Library.
Bibliography Grossman, Mark. "Paine, Thomas (1737-1809)." In Encyclopedia of the Continental Congresses, Vol. 2. Amenia, NY: Grey House Publishing, 2015. Gale Virtual Reference Library.
Footnote or Endnote
print reference work
19. Michael Allen Holmes, "Common Sense," in Milestone Documents in American History: Exploring the Primary Sources that Shaped America, ed. Paul Finkelman (Dallas: Schlager Group, 2008), 1:115-121.
Bibliography Holmes, Michael Allen. "Common Sense." In Milestone Documents in American History: Exploring the Primary Sources that Shaped America. Vol. 1, edited by Paul Finkelman. Dallas: Schlager Group, 2008.
Journals (17.2, pp. 187-191), Magazines (17.3, pp.191-192), & Newspapers (17.4, pp. 192-193). For articles consulted online, include an access date and a URL. For articles that include a DOI, use that form rather than using the URL in your browser address bar. If you retrieved the article from a library database, you may give the name of the database instead of a URL. Access dates are not needed for formally published electronic sources (14.12, CMOS, 17th ed.). You can usually omit an initial The in journal, magazine, and newspaper titles.
"Journals are scholarly or professional periodicals available primarily in academic libraries and by subscription." (17.2, p. 187).
Article from a database
Footnote or Endnote
20. Robert Lamb. "The Liberal Cosmopolitanism of Thomas Paine." Journal of Politics 76, no. 3 (July 2014): 636-648, Academic Search Complete, http://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381614000115.
Bibliography Lamb, Robert. "The Liberal Cosmopolitanism of Thomas Paine." Journal of Politics 76, no. 3 (July 2014): 636-648. Academic Search Complete. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0022381614000115.
Article in a print journal
Footnote or Endnote
21. Thomas C. Walker, "Two Faces of Liberalism: Kant, Paine, and the Question of Intervention," International Studies Quarterly 52, no. 3 (September 2008): 449.
Bibliography Walker, Thomas C. "Two Faces of Liberalism: Kant, Paine, and the Question of Intervention." International Studies Quarterly 52, no. 3 (September 2008): 449-468.
Magazines (17.3, pp.191-192). "Cite magazines by date only, even if they are numbered by volume and issue. You may omit the article's inclusive page numbers in a bibliography entry, since magazine articles often span many pages.... As with journals, you can omit an initial The from the magazine title."
Article in a print magazine
Footnote or Endnote
22. Richard Brookhiser, "Tom Paine. / Collected Writings," National Review, May 15, 1995, 65.
Bibliography Brookhiser, Richard. "Tom Paine. / Collected Writings." National Review, May 15, 1995.
Article from a database
Footnote or Endnote
23. Barbara Ehrenreich, "Real Patriots Speak Their Minds," Time, July 8, 1991, 66, Academic Search Complete.
Bibliography Ehrenreich, Barbara. "Real Patriots Speak Their Minds." Time, July 8, 1991. Academic Search Complete.
Newspaper articles (Sections 17.4, pp. 192-193)
Keep the initial article for newspapers published in other countries, e.g., Le Soleil de Québec, El Mundo. Add the name of the city to the title if it is not a well-known newspaper like Wall Street Journal or Christian Science Monitor. The name of a news website can usually be treated similarly. Do not include page numbers because a newspaper may have several editions where items may appear on different pages or may even be dropped. Do include the edition you consulted. Articles from Sunday "magazine" supplements or other special sections should be treated the same as magazine articles. (p.193). Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As David Chen noted in a New York Times article on March 30, 2001. . . .") instead of in a note, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography, unless a "specific article ... is critical to your argument or frequently cited."
Article from a database
Footnote or Endnote
24. David W. Chen, "Rehabilitating Thomas Paine, Bit by Bony Bit." New York Times, March 30, 2001, http://search.proquest.com/docview/431684606?accountid=7013.
Bibliography Chen, David W. "Rehabilitating Thomas Paine, Bit by Bony Bit." New York Times, March 30, 2001. http://search.proquest.com/docview/431684606?accountid=7013.
Websites, Blogs, and Social Media (Sections 17.5 pp. 194-197) "Social media content is normally cited in the text or notes but not in the bibliography. Include a specific item in your bibliography only if it is critical to your argument or frequently cited. To cite direct messages and other personal or private content, follow the guidelines for citing personal communications (see 17.6.2)" p. 195.
Website Footnote or Endnote
Webpage with author
25. Steven Kreis, "Thomas Paine, 1737-1809," The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History, last revised May 30, 2013, http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/paine.html.
Bibliography
(If there is no author, list the source under the title of the website or the name of its owner or sponsor)
Kreis, Steven. "Thomas Paine, 1737-1809." The History Guide: Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History. Last revised May 30, 2013. http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/paine.html.
Blog Footnote or Endnote
Blog entries or comments may be cited in running text instead of in a note.
26. Kenneth W. Burchell, "On the Bicentennial of the Death of Thomas Paine, June 8, 1809," Thomas Paine Review, accessed April 20, 2018, http://kenburchell.blogspot.com/p/on-bicentennial-of-death-of-thomas.html.
Bibliography Burchell, Kenneth W. "On the Bicentennial of the Death of Thomas Paine, June 8, 1809." Thomas Paine Review. Accessed April 20, 2018. http://kenburchell.blogspot.com/p/on-bicentennial-of-death-of-thomas.html.
Twitter
Footnote or Endnote
27. Thomas Paine Society, Twitter post, January 26, 2014 (3:10 p.m.), https://twitter.com/CitizenPaine.
Bibliography No bibliography entry is needed. These are usually only cited in notes.
Visual and Performing Arts (Section 17.10, pp. 206-213)
Actual image in a gallery
Footnote or Endnote
28. John Wesley Jarvis, Thomas Paine, ca. 1806-1807, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
Bibliography Bibliography entry is usually not needed.
Image in a published source
Footnote or Endnote
29. William Sharp, Thomas Paine (engraving), 1793, in Jack Fruchtman, Thomas Paine: Apostle of Freedom (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996), 274, eBooks on EBSCOhost.
Bibliography Sharp, William. Thomas Paine (engraving), 1793. In Jack Fruchtman, Thomas Paine: Apostle of Freedom. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996. eBooks on EBSCOhost.
Live performance
Footnote or Endnote
30. 1776, by Peter Stone, music and lyrics by Sherman Edwards, directed by Cheryl Denson, Lyric Stage, Irving, Texas, October 26, 2012.
Bibliography Bibliography entry is usually not needed for live performances.
Movies, Television, Radio, and Similar Productions (Section 17.8.3.1, p. 202-203). Include an access date and URL for online sources.
Movies, Television, Radio, and Similar Productions and their recordings
Footnote or Endnote
31. Liberty! The American Revolution, directed by Ellen Hovde and Muffie Meyer (KTCA-TV in association with Middlemarch Films, Inc.; Twin Cities Public Television, 1997), DVD, PBS Video, 2004.
Bibliography Liberty! The American Revolution. Directed by Ellen Hovde and Muffie Meyer. KTCA-TV in association with Middlemarch Films, Inc.; Twin Cities Public Television, 1997. DVD. PBS Video, 2004.
Streaming Media Database
Footnote or Endnote
32. To Begin the World Over Again, (The Life of Thomas Paine Productions, Inc., 2015), 74 min., Kanopy, http://austincc.kanopy.com/video/begin-world-over-again
Bibliography To Begin the World Over Again. The Life of Thomas Paine Productions, Inc. 2015. 74 min. Kanopy. http://austincc.kanopy.com/video/begin-world-over-again.
TEDx, YouTube Video
Footnote or Endnote
33. Alec Loorz, The World in Our Grasp (TEDxYouth@SanDiego, YouTube, Dec 14, 2011), 7:37 min., https://youtu.be/OcguzSPuAlo
Bibliography Loorz, Alec. The World in Our Grasp. TEDxYouth@SanDiego. YouTube. Dec.14, 2011. 7:37 min. https://youtu.be/OcguzSPuAlo.
YouTube Video
Footnotes or Endnotes
34. Paine vs. Burke, Thom Hartmann Program (YouTube, December 10, 2013), 9:16 min., http://youtu.be/PjE3xbbj6eI.
Bibliography Paine vs. Burke. Thom Hartmann Program. YouTube. December 10, 2013. 9:16 min. http://youtu.be/PjE3xbbj6eI.
Sound Recording
Footnote or Endnote
35. "Thomas Paine." Heritage USA, Vol. 2, Part 1: Documents and Speeches, read by David Kurlan, text by Charles Edward Smith, produced by Richard Brandon Morris, released 1956. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 2004, CD. 2:43 min.
Bibliography Smithsonian Folkways Recordings, 2004, CD. 2:43 min.
Video Games and Apps "To cite video games and apps, adapt the examples ... on multimedia as needed. Titles of video games, like titles of movies, can be italicized. Include a version number and information about the device or operating system required to run the game or app" (p. 211).
Lectures, Interviews, and Personal Communications (17.6 - 17.7.2, pp. 197-199
Unpublished lecture
Footnote or Endnote
36. Joe Conason, "Thomas Paine Memorial Lecture" (Center for Inquiry, New York, NY, January 21, 2009).
Bibliography Bibliography entry is usually not needed for unpublished lectures.
Personal communication
Footnote or Endnote
37. In a conversation with me, John Jones stated that Thomas Paine...
Public Documents (Section 17.9, pp. 206-215).
These vary considerably, and include congressional publications, reports and documents, bills and resolutions, hearings, statutes, presidential publications, publications of government departments and agencies, the US Constitution, treaties, legal cases, state and local government documents, Canadian and British government documents, publications of international bodies, and online public documents. It is best to consult the Turabian manual or The Chicago Manual of Style for an example that is similar to the source you are using.

If you have a type of source not covered in the examples given, ask the librarian to show you the Turabian manual. The manuals are available at all campus libraries. Call number: LB2369 .T8 2018.

*Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 9th ed. Revised by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, Joseph Bizup, William T. FitzGerald, and The University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2018.
ACC Study Guide Series
Last updated: May 15, 2018

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